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how can crop production be increased in the world

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If they are controlled at correct time, it will ensure increased crop production. To meet food demands by 2050, worldwide crop production needs to increase by 70% (Wu and Ma, 2015). Sustainable crop production refers to agricultural production in such a way that it does not cause any harm to the environment, biodiversity, or quality of agricultural crops [3, 4]. One problem with this argument is that being as the development of new seeds depends upon the motivation of private profit, there is a lack of incentive to develop traits for which the potential beneficiaries have low purchasing power. These countries will harvest the long-term benefits of conserving the soil quality across this 7% of the world land area, since they are minimizing erosion and improving soil quality, which will prove highly beneficial under climate change, especially since these areas are being farmed and conserved with minimal soil disturbance. Make use of good crop rotation strategies. Plant breeders need to focus … 1 B) —more so if greenhouse gas emissions continue to increase. What are the differences between the transport of materials in xylem and phloem13. To understand the behavior of so many diverse compounds, it is necessary to develop an overarching framework of understanding based on the physicochemical properties and degradative behavior of each compound. Table XI. Copyright © 2021 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. There is a need to expand the implementation of conservation agriculture to a larger world area, wherever it is possible, so that soil productivity will be protected across a larger area. In situ bioremediation practices such as hydrologic barriers, buffer zones, and constructed wetlands have the most potential to remediate agricultural wastes at a reasonable cost. Endophytic bacteria are able to increase crop yields, assist in phytoremediation of environmental contaminants, produce novel substances, and enhance soil nitrogen content through diazotrophic activity. All these properties have proved bacterial endophytes as vital players in agroecosystem. There are three main sources of growth in crop production: expanding the land area, increasing the frequency with which it is cropped (often through irrigation), and boosting yields. Many herbicides used in arable crops are applied either to bare soil prior to emergence of the sown crop or to the seed bed immediately postgermination, and so most of the compounds directly reach the soil surface. When citing this entry, please also cite the underlying data sources. Production Under Organic and Traditional Farming, Environmental Stresses in Soybean Production, Arancon et al., 2008; Lazcano et al., 2010, Conservation Practices for Climate Change Adaptation, Jorge A. Delgado, ... Charles W. Rice, in, Karlen et al., 1994a,b; Lal et al., 1997a,b,c,d; Reicosky, 1997. GM seeds facilitate weed control, reducing problems prior to the crop appearing above ground, which tends to prolong the growing cycle. Genetically modified products and GMO foods: a game of chance? The rates at which pesticides are applied vary widely: a typical arable field in the UK in 2003 received approximately 4 kg ha−1 of pesticide active ingredients in total per annum, though an intensively sprayed crop such as potatoes averages 15 kg ha−1. No-till and/or reduced till systems can reduce soil erosion rates to approximate the long-term rates of soil production, suggesting that they can contribute to more sustainable systems (Montgomery, 2007). One factor to bear in mind is that unlike conventional seeds, there are often limits on reuse. R.H. Bromilow, in Encyclopedia of Soils in the Environment, 2005. ravi434084 ravi434084 1 week ago Science Secondary School +5 pts. Intensification and/or expansion of agriculture are the two main options available to meet the growing crop demands. Testing soils to determine the cause of declining crop yield is the first step toward finding the source of the issue—whether it's disease, a lack of nutrients, or unproductive soil. Additional research on the economic benefits of conservation agriculture, including the use of new practices such as precision conservation, precision farming, target conservation, and controlled-release fertilizers, is also needed. A proposed solution to this predicament is the use of bioremediation techniques to treat agricultural wastes at the farm level or in locations of accumulation. Sulfur concentrations, S : N ratios, and S amino acid contents in cowpea seeds increased with increasing levels of S fertilization. New advances that emerged in the twentieth century (e.g., the green revolution) were accompanied by the use of fertilizers and chemical methods to manage weeds and diseases (e.g., glyphosphate), and new technologies and machinery are contributing to expansion of the adoption of no-till/zero-till systems in some regions of the world, where farmers have seen the economic benefits of using conservation agriculture. More money also means more risk can be taken with certain crops, and new crop practices. It has been suggested that we may be approaching the ceiling of what is possible for all three sources. Conventional intensification describes an increase in farming inputs (e.g. Over the millennia, crop rotations, terracing and leveling of land, irrigation, and other practices have been used in combination with tillage. The results of studies to address plant population and row spacing effects on yield and water use in maize are sometimes conflicting and depend on other factors such as climate, hybrid, irrigation, and planting date. The simulations showed that row spacing did not significantly affect yield, WUE, or transpiration. In fact, the food issue is not just an economic issue, but a security issue. * Global per capita food supply rose from about 2 200 kcal/day in the early 1960s to over 2 800 kcal/day by 2009 The objective of this study was to use a maize simulation model with a 2D soil process model (MAIZSIM) to investigate the interactive effects of maize hybrid, climate, and plant population on water use efficiency (WUE) and yield of maize. For example, in the USA, the estimated share of the gains accruing to farmers is between 5% and 40% (National Research Council, 2010). Sulfur applied to crops grown on S-deficient soils not only increases crop yields but also favorably affects crop quality. Thus, GM seeds may increase the practice of double cropping, that is, growing two crops per season (Trigo and Cap, 2003). Exploitation of endophytic bacteria and their interactions with plants in multiple ways may results into the enhancement of plant health and thus could add to low input or high cost benefit ratio in sustainable agriculture. Two equal mass m, and m2moving along the samestraight line withvelocities + 3 m/s and -5m/srespectivelycollideelastically. With conventional seeds, pest damage is often too great to facilitate profitable production throughout the potential growing season. The average crop yield increase between 1985 and 2009 was from 1582 to 5860 kg ha−1for wheat and 4492 to 5610 kg ha−1 for maize. Increased crop production is the dream of every farmer. NonGM farmers may need to devote resources to protecting their crops from neighboring GM farmers. Water shortages affect the ability to provide food for our world’s growing population. Compounds such as nematicides (for control of plant-parasitic nematode worms) are usually incorporated into the topsoil. Though increasingly strict registration criteria, coupled with market forces, are leading to the discontinuation of the use of many older compounds, it is likely that several hundred active ingredients will remain available. A possible remedy for this deficiency is to increase the sulfo-amino acid levels in seeds by S fertilization. …, the kidneys with respect to the structure and functuoning​. No-till farming, crop residue management, cover crops, integrated nutrient management, surface residue cover, crop rotations, and other practices can help reduce erosion and increase yields (Lal, 1995, 1998, 2004). Global food production needs to be increased by 60–110% between 2005 and 2050 to meet growing food and feed demand. However, the biotechnological potential of these microbes could be better estimated by analyzing their modes and constraints with host plant interaction. The annual evapotranspiration demand of 900 mm far exceeds the long-term average annual precipitation of 500 mm (Yang et al., 2002; Foster and Perry, 2010). Are beneficial agricultural biofertilizers, which can increase the productivity of the Field with the right fertilisers as Hannah! It is the financial condition that allows farmers to grow by over a third by 2050 and! But a security issue too great to facilitate profitable production throughout the growing. Process, plants take water from their roots and carbon dioxide from the air agricultural! The financial condition that allows farmers to grow a particular crop main available... 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